1. Introduction
    The rise in patrol prices and increase in population have surge the demand for electric motorcycles across the world as majority of world population lives under a middle class domain. Global electric motorcycle sales are expected to raise from 32 million in 2014 to at least 40 million in 2023. Many countries are now looking to move towards the electric vehicle this could be a great opportunity business in the process.
    Pakistan on the other hand is third world country and the ride of common man in the country is motorcycle. It is a fact that the majority of the households in Pakistan now belong to the middle class. Total number of registered motorcycle in Pakistan was marked on 17,465,880, which was triple of registered private four wheel vehicles 6,628,063 Unit in Dec 2021.
  2. Business opportunity Review
    The past two month have sighted three sudden hikes in patrol prices which makes the patrol price on highest mark in Pakistan’s history for receiving the next tranche from International Monetary Fund of around $1 billion, due to low level of dollar reserve in Pakistan the pressure is building up on Dollar and increase in dollar price may force the patrol price on Rs.280 to Rs. 300/liter mark.
    Due to fact that economic condition in Pakistan is at its bottom and middle class is struggling to survive. These hikes in patrol prices are making a middle class citizen in difficult situation for cheap means of travel to complete his daily travel. Average Pakistani middle citizen spent Rs. 50 to 100 on his daily fuel bill which in the past enough for his daily travel requirement.
    These condition makes a favorable environment for Electric motorcycles to be replaced with the patrol engine motorcycles. An average daily cost for travel requirements of middle class citizens with an electric bike will be around Rs. 50 to 100 depending on certain parameters as per current electricity price.
    The demand for electric motorcycles is now taking its momentum and up till now in Pakistan there are three major manufactures/assemblers located in Punjab province;

Jolta Electric (Ptv) Ltd.
Waleed Trading Co.

Jolta Electric is the pioneer in introducing and assembling electric motorcycle in Pakistan, launched in 2017. Though the exact production and sales of Electric motorcycles are still not available as the registration process is same as patrol motorcycle with Excise department and neither of the assemblers have revealed the figures yet but it is estimate that all three assembler’s production figures have crossed the 8,000 to 10,000 units combined per month from 0 units in 2017 to 2022. It is expected that electric motorcycles will pass the production figures of patrol motorcycle till 2023 if there is no major drop in patrol prices.

  1. Market prices of Current Electric motorcycles
    As stated above there are three major manufactures/assemblers in Pakistan’s electric motorcycle market and their prices varies as there is no standard prevail as like patrol bikes. The following prices are taken from company’s websites/advertisement materials as of June 2022
    *Note the price have big variation due to the configuration of motorcycle like motor power, Battery type etc.

Jolta (Jolta Electric (Pvt) Ltd)

JOLTA EBIKE JE-70D Rs. 112,000
JOLTA EBIKE JE-70D (SE) Rs. 119,000
JOLTA EBIKE JE-70L Rs. 168,000
JOLTA EBIKE JE-100L Rs. 188,000

RoadKing (Waleed Trading Co.)

ROAD KING RK-70E Rs. 140,000
ROAD KING RK-100E Not available

Jaguar (MS AUTOMOBILES (Pvt.) Ltd)

MS Jaguar E-70 Rs. 163,900
MS Jaguar E-125 Rs. 234,900

There are few more electric motorcycle companies selling their electric motorcycle but they all are importing in CBU.

  1. Production/Assembling Challenges
    Currently all three assemblers in Pakistan are producing on the same frame of patrol motorcycle. Therefore, 90% of parts and assembling technique is same. The difference is in the parts which are replaced from patrol engine and its allied parts. It is a fact that there is scarcity of electric vehicle professionals in the country, this makes the electric motorcycle a challenge due to the fact that user of patrol motorcycle when replacing his patrol motorcycle with electric motorcycle sought same characteristics or even more because he thinks he is paying double the price than patrol motorcycle.
    Following are the main components which are different from patrol motorcycles;

Electric Motor
Other related Parts

I.) Electric Motor
The electric motor serves the replacement of engine and is the main component of electric motorcycle. There are many types of electric motor used in Electric vehicle worldwide and majority of electric motorcycle manufactures prefers one type of electric motor known as Brushless Direct Current motor (BLDC). Brushless Direct Current (BLDC) motors are more effective from other type of motors in terms of Size, Efficiency, and Instantaneous response & Toque. Generally electric motor can be used in tww drive trains, which are

Direct drive/Hub Motor
Mid-Drive/Center Motor

Direct drive/Hub Motor
Direct drive or hub motor is the most popular drive train for low and mid power electric motorcycle. This is due the fact that these type of drive train requires minimal or no maintenance and no chain assembly required because they are entirely independent from motorcycle other parts and do not require additional parts.

These motors have no moving parts except the bearings in the motor and in most electric motorcycle gearless hub motor are used to provide the motor speed and torque directly on wheels. They are much cheaper than its counterpart.

Mid-Drive/Center Motor
Mid-drive or Center motor as name implies, they are installed in the center of gravity or body center of electric motorcycle. These types of motor are expansive than hub motor and used in high end motorcycles. These can be incorporated with gearing system which is much helpful in climbing and descending. They are more powerful than hub motor when driving on hills or off road.

II.) Controller
Controller is the brain of an electric vehicle which operates between the vehicle’s motor and battery, its main function is to control the speed of the motor and also regulates the flow of current from battery according to the input and requirement of the motor. These controller have different additional features like regenerative breaking for recharging batteries in event of applying breaks to reduce speed.

III.) Battery
Battery is the main part of electric vehicle which drives the performance of the vehicle. This energy storage system is major cost factor of an electric vehicle and the key element in the success of an electric vehicle. There are different type of chemistries available in battery with its own advantages and disadvantages. Following are the types of batteries used in today’s electric vehicles;

Lead Acid Batteries
Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxides (NMC)
Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA)
Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP)
Lithium Titanium Oxide (LTO)
Supper Capacitors

We will be discussing about the chemistry only for the common type of batteries used in Electric vehicles and also which is favorable to be used in Pakistan.
Lead Acid Batteries
It is an old and most common chemistry battery used in every sector of industries and home. If using this chemistry battery either flooded or dry lead acid battery, it have only one advantage which is the price. Lead acid batteries are the cheapest in market of batteries. In Pakistan manufacture/assembler are using this battery to reduce the price of motorcycle at the buyer end but due to its huge disadvantages, this battery is not suitable for installing in electric bike. The weight of the battery is about twice as compared to other chemistry which deteriorate the performance of the vehicle. The second biggest disadvantage is its cycle life. With standard working temperature of 25c this can give only 1,500 to 2000 cycle with diminishing performance and can last around 2 to 3 years, if good quality battery is utilized.

Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxides (NMC)
This chemistry battery is the most common type in lithium ion batteries and also widely used in every part of our daily life for example in mobile phones, laptops and in electric vehicles. They are much less in weight in compared to lead acid batteries and have high energy density of about 150 Wh/Kg compared to the energy density of 80 Wh/kg. The cycle life of Lithium NMC batteries are around 3000 cycles. Which is twice of Lead acid batteries. These batteries are expansive than Lead acid batteries and they also have risk of catching fire and may explode if miss handled or miss used. But still they are fit for using in Electric motorcycle with proper care.

Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP)
This chemistry battery is recent invention in the lithium series of batteries. They have more cycle life than its counterpart NMC batteries which is about 5,000 to 7,000 cycles. They do not explode or catch fire easily and are among safest in the line of Lithium based chemistry. Its energy density is about same as NMC but they are more expensive than the NMC batteries. Lithium Iron Phosphate LFP are the best suited batteries for Electric vehicle in Pakistan.

IV. ) Other Related Parts

There are many more parts are required when producing an electric motorcycle and the quantity of these parts varies as per the specification of the designed motorcycle. We will be discussing here only major parts which are required on the existing frame used in patrol motorcycle.

Dc/DC converter
Throttle/Handle Assembly
Lighting system

DC/DC Converter
Normally the motor of electric motorcycle operate in between 48v to 72v range and electrical instruments such as lights and other indicators runs on 12v. Therefore, the battery voltage should be stepped down to 12v so that other instruments can work. For this Dc/DC Converter is introduced in the system.

Throttle/Handle Assembly
The throttle in patrol motorcycles are controlled mechanically but electric motorcycles an electronic throttle of handle Assembly required which signals the controller for increment or decrement of motor RPM also this assembly contains switches to input signals related to modes define in controller program.
Lighting system
In Pakistan patrol motorcycles lighting system are based on Incandescent light bulbs, these bulbs are old technology and draw much energy. Therefore, in electric motorcycles this lighting system is replaced with Light Emitting Diode (LED) bulbs. LED bulbs are energy saving and efficient thus to be used in lighting system of electric motorcycle.

In electric motorcycle speedometer is little different than patrol motorcycle speedometer. In electric motorcycle there are additional indicators to be introduced for displaying the battery remaining capacity of energy and if there is there is drive mode in controller than this indicator is also incorporated in the speedometer.

It is concluded that due to current economic conditions, introducing Electric motorcycle in Pakistan is feasible and profitable as well. By using same patrol frame 90% of currently assembly line can be utilized by the assemblers, which will reduce additional production cost and overheads. It is also worth noted that for success of the product, Electric Vehicle professional should be hired for the design and development of Electric motorcycle so that the